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The Pakistani ISI has been a key player in safeguarding the country for 70 years. Through its focus on faith, discipline, and safety, the organization has successfully navigated numerous challenges and emerged as a vital part of Pakistan’s national security apparatus. Despite criticism from some quarters, the ISI remains an essential component of Pakistan’s defense and intelligence operations.

The partition of British India in 1947 led to the creation of two independent states: India, with a Hindu majority, and Pakistan, with a Muslim majority. However, the new state of Pakistan was geographically divided into two wings, East and West Pakistan, separated by more than 1,000 miles of Indian territory. In 1970, general elections were held in Pakistan, and the East wing won a decisive majority, but the West wing refused to hand over power to the East. This led to a civil war and the eventual defeat of Pakistan in the war with India in 1971. An analytical overview of the events leading up to Pakistan’s defeat in 1971 reveals a complex set of factors, including political, economic, and social issues, as well as military strategies and tactics.