Progress and Obstacles

Advancing  Gender Equality:  Shaping Pakistan’s Future

Lately, the quest for orientation uniformity has arisen as a characterising social and policy centration all over the planet. Regarding Pakistan, a country with rich social embroidery and a complex socio-political scene, the mission for orientation equality has become the dominant focal point. This article dives into the legitimate changes reshaping the way towards orientation balance in Pakistan. As a general public at the intersection of custom and innovation, Pakistan faces a novel arrangement of difficulties and open doors in its excursion towards guaranteeing equivalent privileges for all sexual orientations. This investigation will reveal the basic legitimate changes, strategy moves, and developing social stories pushing the country toward a fairer future. From regulative alterations to legal translations, this article enlightens the complex endeavours highlighting the continuous change of Pakistan’s legitimate structure in its quest for orientation equity.

Some aspects which will be discussed in this article

  1. Legal Reforms for Women’s Rights

  2. Gender Equality In Pakistan

  3. Pakistan Women’s Rights Legislation

  4. Women’s Empowerment Laws

  5. Gender Responsive Policies

Legal Reforms for Women’s Rights

Public constitutions are major aides for sorting out administration structures and laying out concurred legitimate standards. Over the long run, changes or redrafting open doors for nations to install or grow orientation equity arrangements. This is by the Show on the Disposal of All Types of Oppression Ladies, which approaches signatory states to epitomise the standard of orientation equity in their constitutions. They ought to likewise act to understand this guideline across all parts of their overall sets of laws, including by changing biased regulations, taking on resolutions that advance orientation fairness and ladies’ strengthening, and guaranteeing that legitimate practices maintain ladies’ freedoms.

Gender Equality in Pakistan

Pakistan currently positions as the second most reduced country for gender equality, as per the Global Gender Gap Index. As the 6th most populated country on the earth and with a high fruitfulness pace of 3.8 youngsters per woman, gaps in the satisfaction of women’s reproductive rights and the far and wide commonness of gender-based violence are at the very front of gender inequality. Even though endeavours to advance orientation uniformity are clear inside Pakistan’s Vision 2025, there is something else to be finished to work on the real factors for women and girls across the country.

Pakistan Women’s Rights Legislation

Here are women’s legislation rights which pass in favour of gender equality and women’s protection of pro women laws:

  1. Anti-rape (Investigation and Trial) Act, 2021
  2. Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2021
  3. The Islamabad Capital Territory older Citizens Act, 2021
  4. The Islamabad Capital Territory Prohibition of Corporal Punishment Act, 2021
  5. The Muslim Family Laws (Amendment) Act, 2021
  6. The Muslim Family Laws (Amendment) Act, 2021 – (XXVIII)
  7. The Zainab Alert,  Recovery and Response Act, 2020
  8. The ICT Rights of Persons With Disability Act 2020
  9. The Legal Aid and Justice Authority Act, 2020
  10. The Enforcement of Women’s Property Rights Act, 2020

The Enforcement of Women’s Property Rights (Amendment) Act, 2021:

  1. The Letter of Administration and Succession Certificate Act, 2020
  2. The Islamabad Capital Territory Rights of Persons with Disability Act, 2020
  3. Islamabad Capital Territory Child Protection Act, 2018

Islamabad Capital Territory Child Protection (Amendment) Act, 2022:

  1. Juvenile Justice System Act, 2018

Juvenile Justice System (Amendment) Act, 2022

  1. Prevention of Trafficking in Persons Act, 2018
  2. Transgender Persons (Protection and Rights) Act 2018
  3. Hindu Marriage Act-2017
  4. Witness Protection, Security and Benefit Act, 2017
  5. National Commission on the Rights of the Child Act 2017

National Commission on the Rights of the Child (Amendment) Act 2022:

  1. Prevention of Electronic Crimes Act, 2016
  2. The Investigation for Fair Trial Act, 2013
  3. Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2012
  4. National Commission for Human Rights Act, 2012
  5. National Commission on the Status of Women Act, 2012
  6. Protection Against Harassment of Women At Workplace Act 2010

The National Commission on the Status of Women (Amendment) Act, 2021

  1. The Special Citizen Act, 2008
  2. Qanun-e-Shahadat Order 1984 (Law of Evidence)
  3. Women in Distress and Detention Fund Act, 1996

Women in Distress and Detention Fund (Amendment) Act 2018 & 2012

  1. Bonded Labour System Abolition Act, 1992
  2. The Pakistan Bait-ul-Mal Act, 1991
  3. Employment of Children Act, 1991
  4. The Dowry and Bridal Gift (Restriction) Act, 1976
  5. Probation of Offenders Ordinance 1960
  6. West Pakistan Family Court Act, 1964
  7. West Pakistan Family Court Rules, 1965
  8. West Pakistan Control of Orphanages Act, 1958
  9. Hindu Married Women’s Rights to Separate Residence and Maintenance Act, 1946
  10. Hindu Women’s Rights to Property Act 1937
  11. Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1929
  12. Factories Act, 1934 (Amended in 1997)
  13. Guardian and Ward Act, 1890
  14. Pakistan Penal Code, 1860

Criminal laws

  1. Criminal Law (Amendment) Ordinance, 1984 (Stripping of women’s clothes, 354A),
  2. Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2004 (Badal-i-such, Honor Killing)
  3. Protection of Women (Criminal Laws Amendment) Act, 2006
  4. Criminal Law (Second Amendment) Act, 2011 (Offences of Acid throwing)
  5. Criminal Law (Third Amendment) Act, 2011 (Of offences against women)
  6. Criminal Law (Second Amendment) Act, 2016 (Criminalizing CSA)
  7. Criminal Law (Amendment) (Offence in the name or on the Pretext of Honor) Act, 2016
  8. Criminal Law (Amendment) Offence relating to Rape) Act, 2016
  9. Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2018
  10. Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2021 (Anti-rape provisions)
  11. Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898
  12. Disabled Persons (Employment and Rehabilitation) Ordinance, 1981
  13. Christian Marriage Act, 1872
  14. Divorce Act, 1869
  15. Hindu Widows Remarriage Act, 1856

Acts according to Province


  1. The Punjab Maternity Benefits Ordinance, 1958
  2. (Punjab) Disabled Persons (Employment and Rehabilitation) Ordinance, 1981
  3. Punjab Mental Health Ordinance, 2001
  4. The Protection of Breastfeeding and Young Child Nutrition Ordinance, 2002
  5. Punjab Protection against Harassment of Women at the Workplace Act, 2012.
  6. Punjab Commission on the Status of Women Act, 2014
  7. Punjab Fair Representation of Women Act 2014
  8. The Punjab Reproductive, Maternal, Neonatal and child health Authority Act, 2014
  9. Child Marriage Restraint 1929 – Punjab (Amendment) Act of 2015
  10. Muslim Family Ordinance 1961 (Punjab Muslim Family Laws (Amendment) Act, 2015)
  11. Family Courts Act, 1964 (Punjab Family Courts (Amendment) Act, 2015)
  12. Punjab Partition of Immovable Property (Amendment) Act, 2015
  13. The Punjab Land Revenue (Amendment) Act, 2015
  14. The Punjab Protection of Women Against Violence Act, 2016
  15. Punjab Restriction on Employment of Children Ordinance, 2016
  16. Punjab Prohibition of Child Labor at Brick Kilns Act, 2016
  17. Punjab Women Protection Authority Act, 2017


  1. Sindh Reproductive Healthcare Rights Act, 2019
  2. The Sindh Women Agricultural Workers Act, 2019
  3. Sindh Empowerment of Persons with Disability Act, 2017
  4. Sind Commission on the Status of Women Act, 2016
  5. Sindh Child Marriage Restraint, Act, 2013
  6. Sindh Protection of Human Rights Act, 2013
  7. Sind Child Protection Authority Act, 2013
  8. Sindh Domestic Violence (Prevention and Protection) Act, 2013.
  9. Sindh Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 2015
  10. Sindh Hindu Marriage Act, 2016
  11. The Sindh Prohibition of Corporal Punishment Act, 2016.
  12. Sindh Children Act, 1955

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

  1. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Domestic Violence Against Women Act, 2021
  2. The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Reproductive HealthCare Rights Act,2020
  3. The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Persons with Disabilities (Rights, Rehabilitation & Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities) Act, 2017’.
  4. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Provincial Commission on the Status of Women Act, 2016
  5. The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Prohibition of Employment of children act, 2015
  6. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Bonded Labour System Abolition Act, 2015
  7. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Elimination of Customs of Ghag Act,  2013
  8. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Disabled Persons (Employment and Rehabilitation) (Amendment) Act, 2012
  9. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Enforcement of Women Ownership Act, 2012
  10. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Child Protection and Welfare Act 2010
  11. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Disabled Persons (Employment and Rehabilitation) Rules, 1991.


  1. The Balochistan Domestic Violence (Prevention and Protection) Act 2014
  2. Balochistan Harassment of Women at Workplace Act, 2014
  3. Balochistan Child Protection Act, 2016
  4. Balochistan Witness Protection Act 2016
  5. Balochistan Person with Disability Act, 2017

Women Empowerment laws

The Protection against Harassment of Women at the Workplace (Amendment) Bill, 2022, enacted January 14, expands the definition of workplaces to encompass both formal and informal workplaces, bringing it closer to the meaning set out in the 2019 International Labour Organization (ILO) Violence and Harassment Convention (C190), which Pakistan has not ratified. The new legislation includes explicitly domestic workers, who are often isolated and marginalised, who can be at greater risk of workplace violence and harassment.

Gender Responsive Policies

Gender equality and inclusion will be placed at the core of all NDRMF operations. NDRMF is committed to achieving gender equality and inclusiveness by ensuring the human rights of women, girls, boys, men and PWDs are equally promoted and protected in disasters, they participate in project cycle management and have equitable and safe access to services provided. NDRMF will not tolerate discrimination based on sex, religion, caste, disability, class or ethnicity, internally or in the project.

Here are some questions that arise in people’s minds after reading this article and which also show the progress and obstacles in legal reforms in gender equality:

Questions Arrises?

Q1 What are the obstacles to gender equality in Pakistan?

Ans: Gender equality in Pakistan faces different obstacles, including social standards that authorise traditional gender roles, lack of access to quality education for girls, restricted work amazing open doors for women, lack of lawful security, and cultural tensions that propagate gender-based violence and discrimination. These provoke join to prevent progress towards accomplishing orientation equity in the country.

Q2 What are the main obstacles to achieving gender equality in Pakistan?

Ans: Achieving gender equality in Pakistan is a complex endeavour that involves overcoming various obstacles deeply rooted in societal norms, cultural traditions, and structural inequalities. Some of the main obstacles include:

  1. Patriarchal Norms
  2. Limited access to education
  3. Violence against women
  4. Discriminatory laws
  5. Lack of economic opportunities
  6. Child marriage
  7. Underrepresentation in leadership
  8. Lack of healthcare access
  9. Lack of awareness and advocacy
  10. Social stigma
  11. Media and cultural portrayals
  12. Inadequate implementation of laws

Q3 What are the four barriers and hindrances to gender equality?

Ans: Four significant barriers and hindrances to gender equality are:

  1. Social norms and cultural beliefs
  2. Lack of access to education and resources
  3. Violence and discrimination
  4. Structural and institutional barriers

Q 4 What is the main goal of Gender equality?

Ans: The main goal of gender equality is to guarantee that all people, no matter what their gender, have equivalent freedoms, open doors, and treatment in all parts of life. This incorporates regions like training, work, medical services, political investment, legitimate freedoms, and social cooperation. Gender equality tries to kill the discrimination inclinations, and accepted practices that propagate imbalances between sexes.

A definitive point is to make a general public where everybody can completely understand their true capacity, pursue decisions without restrictions given their gender, and contribute seriously to social, monetary, and social advancement.

Q 5 What is the progress in gender equality in Pakistan?

Ans: In recent years, Pakistan has taken striking steps in gender equality. Lawful changes tending to women’s privileges expanded admittance to schooling and cooperation in legislative issues and labour force grandstand progress. In any case, challenges like orientation-based brutality persevere, requiring endeavours to accomplish extensive gender equality and engage ladies completely.

 Q 6 What is the status of gender equality in today’s world?

Ans: Gender Equality has seen headways worldwide; however, despite improved education and workplace investments for women, gaps persist in compensation and managerial roles, and portrayal. Gender-based equality and social predispositions continue, highlighting the requirement for continuous endeavours to guarantee equivalent privileges, open doors, and strengthen all genders.


In conclusion, the excursion towards gender equity through lawful changes in Pakistan is a diverse undertaking that holds commitment and potential. As the country wrestles with its extraordinary mix of customs and progress, the gradual changes in regulation and strategies connote a positive shift.

By the by, the way forward is filled with difficulties, requiring supported obligation to address profoundly dug-in accepted practices, prejudicial practices, and foundational obstructions. The development of legitimate systems for gender correspondence mirrors the general public’s eagerness to develop and embrace inclusivity. With backing, execution, and training, these legitimate changes can prepare for a more even-handed future, where the full range of human potential realises no gender limits.


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